# Weighted Average Cost

Flow of costs refers to the manner or path in which costs move through a firm. After the sale is recorded, the following financial information is reported by the retail story but only if FIFO is applied. Two shirts were bought for (\$50 and \$70), and one shirt was sold for \$110. Note that it is not the oldest item that is necessarily sold but rather the oldest cost that is reclassified first. However, for identical items like shirts, cans of tuna fish, bags of coffee beans, hammers, packs of notebook paper and the like, the idea of maintaining such precise records is ludicrous.

If the company had applied LIFO, cost of goods sold would have been \$10 higher than is being reported. However, an examination of the notes to financial statements for several well-known businesses shows an interesting inconsistency in the reporting of inventory . Understand that accounting rules tend to be standardized so that companies must often report events according to one set method. FIFO is based on the principle that the first inventory goods received will be the first inventory goods sold. FIFO results in the highest ending inventory, the lowest cost of goods sold, and the highest net income. This is because the oldest and lowest costs are allocated to cost of goods sold. Many companies are in the business of mining natural resources from the earth.

Under the first in, first out method, you assume that the first item purchased is also the first one sold. Because FIFO is applied, the first cost (\$120) should be moved from inventory to cost of goods sold instead of \$125 . Cost of goods sold is too high by \$5 and inventory is too low by the same amount. Working capital is understated because the inventory balance within the current assets is too low.

## Which Method Will Result In Higher Profitability When Inventory Costs Are Rising?

The way you calculate the cost of your inventory can change the profit you show on your financial statement. Learn how one method can show higher profits, while the other method can give you tax benefits. In this example, the physical flow of the items would match the cost flow of those items. However, most companies are not able to sustain this practice and must use one of the other cost flow assumptions to value their inventory.

Depreciation, as just one example, is computed in an entirely different manner for tax purposes than for financial reporting. Accounting theorists may argue that financial statement presentations are enhanced by LIFO because it matches recently incurred costs with the recently generated revenues. Others maintain that FIFO is better because recent costs are reported in inventory on the balance sheet. Whichever method is used, it is important to note that the inventory method must be clearly communicated in the financial statements and related notes.

This method usually produces different results depending on whether the company uses a periodic or perpetual system. Under the last in, first out method, you assume that the last item purchased is also the first one sold. Since this is the highest-cost item in the example, profits would be lowest under LIFO. Since this is the lowest-cost item in the example, profits would be highest under FIFO. In our example, the inventories purchased experienced a price appreciation. January purchase costs per unit were \$130, February purchase costs per unit were \$150, and March purchase costs per unit were \$200. Therefore, since the periodic system uses the costs of goods available for sale over the entire quarter, more is allocated to the costs of goods sold for the sale of inventory.

That cost can then be moved from inventory to cost of goods sold. Unfortunately, for many other types of inventory, no practical method exists for determining QuickBooks the physical flow of specific goods from seller to buyer. If you matched the \$100 cost with the sale, the company’s inventory will have the higher costs.

The following graphic illustrates this allocation process. The first‐in, first‐out method yields the same result whether the company uses a periodic or perpetual system. retained earnings Under the perpetual system, the first‐in, first‐out method is applied at the time of sale. The earliest purchases on hand at the time of sale are assumed to be sold.

In most companies, this assumption closely matches the actual flow of goods, and so is considered the most theoretically correct inventory valuation method. In a period of increasing costs, assets will be greater for LIFO than FIFO. Which inventory cost flow assumption generally results in the highest reported amount for cost of goods sold when inventory costs are falling? This is because the acquisition price of the inventory consistently rises during the year, from \$4.10 to \$4.70. We deliberately constructed this example to reflect rising prices because, in today’s economy, rising prices are more common than are falling prices.

## The Necessity Of Adopting A Cost Flow Assumption

How does a company account for the value of the land as those assets are removed? This lesson will describe the accounting procedure called depletion.

Thus, for this men’s clothing store, all the following figures are presented fairly but only in conformity with the cost flow assumption used by the reporting company. Companies that sell a large number of inexpensive items generally do not track the specific cost of each unit in inventory. Instead, they use one of the other three methods to allocate inventoriable costs. These other methods are built upon certain assumptions about how merchandise flows through the company, so they are often referred to as assumed cost flow methods or cost flow assumptions. Accounting principles do not require companies to choose a cost flow method that approximates the actual movement of inventory items.

On that date, the cost of the last two units (\$130 each) came from the June 13 purchase. In contrast, a periodic LIFO system makes that same determination but not until December 31. As viewed from year’s end, the last costs were \$149 each. Although these items were bought on September 22, which is after the last sale, they are included in the cost of goods sold for a periodic LIFO system. On this perpetual inventory spreadsheet, the final cell in the “inventory on hand” column (\$558 or two units @ \$130 and two units at \$149) provides the cost of the ending inventory. Summation of the “cost of goods sold” column reflects that expense for the period (\$930 or \$330 + \$350 + \$250). Although no shirt did cost \$60, this average serves as the basis for both cost of goods sold as well as the cost of the item still on hand.

## A Decrease In The Balance Of Accounts Receivable

In filing income taxes with the United States government, a company must follow the regulations of the Internal Revenue Code.

Cost flow assumptions are necessary because of inflation and the changing costs experienced by companies. If you matched the \$110 cost with the sale, the company’s inventory will have lower costs. The weighted-average cost would mean that both the inventory and the cost of goods sold would be valued at \$105 per unit. In FIFO, the \$120 cost is removed from inventory and added to cost of goods sold because it is the first cost acquired. Under LIFO, the \$135 cost of the last lawn mower would have been reclassified. Thus, in using LIFO, cost of goods sold is \$15 higher so that both gross profit and net income are \$15 lower.

• This is a substantial figure, considering that Safeway’s net income for 2020 was \$185.0 million.
• In addition, it does not offer the benefits that make FIFO and LIFO so appealing.
• However, the reason most companies apply the LIFO costing method relates to U.S. tax law.
• It is literally impossible to analyze the reported net income and inventory balance of a company such as ExxonMobil without knowing the cost flow assumption that has been applied.
• The assumption that an average cost can be used for all goods of a certain type when calculating the cost of goods sold and ending inventory.
• The way you calculate the cost of your inventory can change the profit you show on your financial statement.

The goods available for sale represents the total amount of goods or inventory that is available to sell to the company’s customers. Companies also select a cost flow assumption to specify the cost that is transferred from inventory to cost of goods sold (and, hence, the cost that remains in the inventory T-account). For a periodic system, the cost flow assumption is only applied when the physical inventory count is taken and the cost of the ending inventory is determined. In a perpetual system, each time a sale is made the cost flow assumption identifies the cost to be reclassified to cost of goods sold. LIFO is popular in the United States because of the LIFO conformity rule but serious theoretical problems do exist. Because of these concerns, LIFO is prohibited in many places in the world because of the rules established by IFRS. The most recent costs are reclassified to cost of goods sold so earlier costs remain in the inventory account.

## Inventory Accounting Policies

What relationship exists between cost flows and the physical flow of goods in a company? The cost flow assumptions have no relation to the physical flow of the goods in a company. The assumptions are used to assign costs to inventory units. Cost of new purchases are the focus of the record keeping. After the final count the first costs are transferred to COGS so that the lasts cost for the period of the last remaining inventory is now left in the inventory T-account. Many will use this method for their ending inventory to properly apply the actual costs and expenses.

In addition, a method must be applied to monitor inventory balances . Six combinations of inventory systems can result from these two decisions. With any periodic system, the cost flow assumption is only used to determine the cost of ending inventory so that cost of goods sold can be calculated. For perpetual, the reclassification of costs is performed each time that a sale is made based on the cost flow assumption that was selected. Periodic FIFO and perpetual FIFO systems arrive at the same reported balances because the earliest cost is always the first to be transferred regardless of the method being applied.

## Weighted Average

Conversely, FIFO provides a realistic balance sheet at the expense of the income statement. In either case, the average cost will provide figures between those of FIFO and LIFO. As prices rise, companies prefer to apply LIFO for tax purposes because this assumption reduces reported income and, hence, required cash payments to the government. In the United States, LIFO has come to be universally equated with the saving of tax dollars. When LIFO was first proposed as a tax method in the 1930s, the United States Treasury Department appointed a panel of three experts to consider its validity. The members of this group were split over a final resolution. They eventually agreed to recommend that LIFO be allowed for income tax purposes but only if the company was also willing to use LIFO for financial reporting.

In the U.S., however, LIFO is used by approximately 30 percent of U.S. companies because of potential income tax savings. A LIFO liquidation bookkeeping results when a company experiences declines in inventory quantities. This creates an inflated profit margin distorts net income.

## Inventory Values:

C. LIFO produces an inventory valuation on the balance sheet that is always closer to replacement cost. B. For balance sheet purposes, the cost of inventory will approximate the current replacement cost under the LIFO assumption. A. The LIFO cost flow assumption does not normally reflect the usual physical flow of inventory units. Under the LIFO (Last-In, First-Out) cost flow assumption, inventory is sold from the most recent purchases, leaving the earliest purchased inventory on hand.

Accountants usually adopt the FIFO, LIFO, or Weighted-Average cost flow assumption. The actual physical flow of the inventory may or may not bear a resemblance to the adopted cost flow assumption. In the following illustration, assume that Gonzales Chemical Company had a beginning inventory balance that consisted of 4,000 units costing \$12 per unit. Assume that Gonzales conducted a physical count of inventory and confirmed that 5,000 units were actually on hand at the end of the year. The term cost flow assumptions refers to the manner in which costs are removed from a company’s inventory and are reported as the COGS. In the U.S., the common cost flow assumptions are First-in, First-out , Last-in, First-out , and average. Additionally, there are ways to estimate ending inventory, such as the retail inventory method, and it is possible to assign costs to inventory using the actual cost of each item .

For example, according to the Safeway annual report, the application of the LIFO inventory method reduced gross profits by \$29.3 million in 2019. This is a substantial cost flow assumption figure, considering that Safeway’s net income for 2020 was \$185.0 million. Thus, the dampening impact of LIFO on reported assets can be removed easily by the reader.